Last week’s focus was on using ten frames to help with students’ number sense and conceptual development of number bonds for amounts 1-10. This post will feature ways to use ten frames to enhance students’ understanding of addition and subtraction. Look for freebies and a video!
There are many addition and subtraction strategies to help students memorize the basic facts such as these below. The ten frame is a very good tool for students of all grade levels to make these strategies more concrete and visual. I will focus on some of these today.
add or take away 1 (or 2)
doubles, near doubles
facts of 10
make a ten
add or sub. 10
add or sub. 9
add or sub. tens and ones
Doubles and near doubles (doubles +1, -1, +2, or -2): If the doubles are memorized, then problems near doubles can be solved strategically.
Show a doubles fact on a single ten frame (for up to 5 + 5). Use a double ten-frame template for 6 + 6 and beyond.
With the same doubles fact showing, show a near doubles problem. This should help students see that the answer is just one or two more or less.
Repeat with other examples.
Help student identify what a doubles + 1 more (or less) problem looks like. They often have a misconception there should be a 1 in the problem. Make sure they can explain where the “1” does come from. Examples: 7 + 8, 10+11, 24+25, 15 +16, etc.
For subtraction, start with the doubles problem showing and turn over the 2-color counters or remove them.
Facts of 10: These are important to grasp for higher level addition / subtraction problems as well as rounding concepts.Continue reading →
The focus in this post will be an introduction to ten frames and ways they can help your students gain number sense. Then stay tuned because ten frames can also be a great tool for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Subitizing: This is the ability to recognize an amount without physically counting. Looking at the picture of red counters: If the top row is full, does the student automatically know there are 5? Doing a Number Talk is a great way to practice subitizing using a ten frame:
Use your own or pre-made dot cards. Flash the card for 1-2 seconds. Observe students. Are any of them trying to point and count? Or do they seem to know right away? Here’s a great video I recommend: KG Number Talk with ten frames
Tell students to put their thumb in front of their chest (quietly) to signal they know how many there are.
Ask a few students to name the amount.
Then ask this very important question, “How did you know?”
For the top picture you might hope a child says, “I knew there were 5 because when the top row is full, there are 5.”
For the bottom picture, you might hope for these types of responses: “I saw 4 (making a square) and 1 more.” or “I saw 3 and 2 more.” or “I pictured the 2 at the bottom moving up to the top row and filling it up, which is 5.”
The idea is to keep building on this.
What if I showed 4 in the top row? Can the student rationalize that it was almost 5? Do they see 2 and 2?
What if I showed 5 in the top row and 1 in the bottom row? Can the student think “5 and 1 more is 6?”
Here are some resources you might like to help with subitizing using ten frames.
Number Bonds:Using ten frames to illustrate number bonds assists students with composing and decomposing numbers. Students then see that a number can be more than a counted amount or a digit on a jersey or phone number. Here is an example of number bonds for 6:
Last time I focused on some basics about learning the number bonds (combinations) of 10 as well as adding 10 to any number. Today I want to show the benefits of making a 10 when adding numbers with sums greater than 10 (such as 8 + 5). Then I’ll show how to help students add up to apply that to addition and subtraction of larger numbers. I’ll model this using concrete and pictorial representations (which are both important before starting abstract forms).
Using a 10 Frame:
A ten frame is an excellent manipulative for students to experience ways to “Make a 10.” I am attaching a couple of videos I like to illustrate the point.
Model this process with your students using 2 ten frames.
Put 8 counters on one ten frame. (I love using 2-color counters.)
Put 5 counters (in another color) on the second ten frame.
Determine how many counters to move from one ten frame to the other to “make a 10.” In this example, I moved 2 to join the 8 to make a 10. That left 3 on the second ten frame. 10 + 3 = 13 (and 8 + 5 = 13).
The example below shows the same problem, but this time move 5 from the first ten frame to the second ten frame to “make a 10.” That left 3 on the first ten frame. 3 + 10 = 13 (and 8 + 5 = 13). Continue reading →
I’m sure everyone would agree that learning the addition / subtraction facts associated with the number 10 are very important. Or maybe you are thinking, aren’t they all important? Why single out 10? My feelings are that of all the basic facts, being fluent with 10 and the combinations that make 10 enable the user to apply more mental math strategies, especially when adding and subtracting larger numbers. Here are a few of my favorite activities to promote ten-ness! Check out the card trick videos below – great way to get kids attention, practice math, and give them something to practice at home. Continue reading →