This post will feature some more number pairs / number bonds activities as well as ideas for informal assessment (along with some FREEBIES). See the previous post for Part 1. Also, here is another cool virtual manipulatives site: https://toytheater.com/category/teacher-tools/ You will find lots of materials for students to use to help with these activities: counters, bears, two-color counters, whole-part-part templates, Rekenreks, etc. Check it out!
For all of these activities, the student should be working with the number of manipulatives to match their focus number. They should do several different activities using that same amount to get lots of different experiences making the same number pairs repeatedly. After a generous amount of practice, assess the child and move to the next number when ready. An important feature of each activity is for the student to verbalize the combination being made. Using a sentence frame they can have with them or putting it on the board for all to see is a plus: “____ and ____ makes _____.” Students will usually need reminders that you should hear them saying this. It takes if from just playing to being cognizant this is a serious math activity.
Heads or Tails: Use coins and a whole-part-part template. The student shakes and gently drops some coins (stick to one type of coin). Then sort according to how many landed on heads vs. tails by placing them on one of the templates. Say the combination outloud: “5 heads and 2 tails makes 7.” Repeat. Here’s a FREE Coin Toss recording sheet.
Paper Cups:The student finds different ways to place small paper cups up or down to match their focus number. Example: To make 7 I could have 5 up and 2 down, or 6 up and 1 down, or 4 up and 3 down, etc.
Hiding or “Bear in the Cave”:
Use a small bowl, clean plastic butter tub, etc. and some objects (cubes, stones, beans, cheerios, M&Ms).
With a partner and the number of objects matching the student’s focus number, partner 1 closes their eyes while partner 2 hides some of the counters under the tub and the rest outside or on the tub.
Partner 1 opens his eyes and names how many outside the tub and then tries to determine the number hiding.
Partner 2 can then reveal if partner 1 was correct or not.
Calling it “Bear in the Cave” was the idea of a math specialist I follow and clicking on this link will take you to her site with the opportunity to get the directions and recording sheet (Math CoachsCorner: mathcoachscorner.com Bears in the Cave freebie)
Be sure when students are playing that they say the number pairs outloud such as, “3 and 4 make 7.”
Roll and Cover Game / Four in a Row:
Items needed: A blank grid template (4×4 or larger), counters or crayons for each player (up to 3), and one of the following to create numbers needed to play (spinner, number cards, custom dice).
With the grid template, create the game board by randomly placing all of the numbers making up the number pairs for the focus number and fill up the grid. If working on number pairs of 6 as pictured, place these randomly: 0, 6, 5, 1, 2, 4, and 3
Using a spinner, custom dice, or number cards, select the first number (example 5). Make this sentence frame: “2 goes with ____ to make 6.” Locate the missing number on the grid and put a counter there (or color if using a printed worksheet). How to create an easy spinner: Draw one with the number of spaces needed and duplicate for multiple students. To use, students place a pencil vertically on the center of the spinner to hold a paper clip at the center. Spin the clip.
The object is to try to get 4 of your counters (or colors if using a worksheet) in a row (vertically, horizontally, or diagonally). Blocking your opponents may be necessary to keep them from getting 4 in a row.
Stories: Students can create stories using pictures from clip art or other art work:
6 children and 1 adult = 7 OR 4 girls and 3 boys = 7 Or 2 pink shirts + 5 other shirts = 7
This page can be used to record a student’s mastery of the number pairs / bonds. On all assessments, observe if student names hiding amount immediately (meaning fact is known) or uses fingers or other counting methods such as head-bobbing, etc. For mastery, you want the student to be able to name the missing amount quickly.Click here for free PDF copies: Number Bond Assessment by CE and Number Pairs assessment class recording sheet CE
The Hiding Game above can also be used as an assessment as the teacher controls how many showing / hiding. Ask the same questions each time: “How many showing?” and “How many hiding?”
Folding dot cards: Hold one flap down and open the other. Ask, “How many dots?” Then ask, “How many hiding?”I got these free at one time from www.k-5mathteachingresources.com, but not sure they are available now. At any rate, they look easy to make.These are also good to practice with a partner.Here is a similar one I made for FREE with the PDF copy :Number Bond 3-10 assessment in part-whole format
Whole-Part-Part Template: Using a circular or square template, place a number or objects in one of the parts. Ask student how many more are needed to create the focus number. This can also be done with numbers only as shown in this picture.
Let us know if you have tried any of these, or if you have others that you’d like to share!
As I’ve mentioned before, as a consultant I am available to help you as an individual, your grade level team, or your school via online PD, webinar, or just advice during a Zoom meeting. Contact me and we can make a plan that works for you. If you are interested in tutoring during your “spare time” check out my link for Varsity Tutors on the side bar. Mention my name and we both get a bonus. Have a wonderful, SAFE week. Mask up for everyone!
Learning the combinations for numbers (number pairs / numbers bonds) is critical for both operations — addition and subtraction. This is slightly different than fact families, but it’s related. With number bonds, students learn all of the possible ways to combine 2 numbers for each sum. Think of whole / part / part. If five is the whole amount, how many different ways can it be split or decomposed? For example these combinations illustrate ways to make 5:
5 = 1 and 4 (also 4 and 1)
5 = 2 and 3 (also 3 and 2)
5 = 5 and 0 (also 0 and 5)
Knowing these combinations will aid a student’s understanding of the relationship of numbers as they also solve missing addend and subtraction problems. For example:
For the problem 2 + ___ = 5. Ask, “What goes with 2 to make 5?”
For the problem 5 – 4 = ____. Ask, “What goes with 4 to make 5?”
I suggest students work on just one whole number at a time and work their way up with regard to number bond mastery (from 2 to 10). You may need to do a quick assessment to determine which number they need to start with (more of assessment both pre and post coming in Part 2). Once a student demonstrates mastery of one number, they can move on to the next. It is great when you notice them start to relate the known facts to the new ones. Here are a few activities to practice number pairs. They are interactive and hands-on.
One more thing: PreK and KG students could work on these strictly as an hands-on practice, naming amounts verbally. Using the word “and” is perfectly developmentally appropriate: “2 and 3 make 5”. With late KG and up, they are ready to start using math symbols to illustrate the operation.
Shake and spill with 2-color counters:
Shake and Spill
Use 2 color counters. Quantity will be the number the child is working on. Shake them in your hand or a small paper cup. Spill them out (gently please). How many are red? How many are yellow? Record on a chart. Gradually you want to observe the child count the red and then tell how many yellow there should be without counting them. This will also aid a student with subitizing skills (naming the quantity without physically counting the objects). To extend the activity, you can create a graph of the results, compare results with classmates, and determine which combinations were not spilled. Click on this link for the recording sheet shown: Shake and Spill recording page
Connecting cubes: Use unifix or connecting cubes. Quantity will be the number the child is working on. Two different colors should be available. How many different ways can the child make a train of cubes using one or both colors? If working with 5, they might show this: 1 green and 4 blue; 2 green and 3 blue; 4 green and 1 blue; 3 green and 2 blue; 5 green and 0 blue; or 0 green and 5 blue. They could draw and color these on paper if you need a written response.
Use a ten frame template and 2 different colored objects (cubes, counters, flat glass stones, candy, cereal, etc.) to show all of the cominations of the number the student is working on. Using a virtual ten frame such as the one here Didax.com virtual ten frame or here Math Learning Center – Number Frames are also cool – especially if you are working from home or don’t want students to share manipulatives.
On and Off: This is similar to shake and spill above. Use any type of counters (I especially love the flat glass tones for this myself) and any picture. For my collection, I chose some child-friendly images on clip art and enlarged each one separately to fit on an 8.5 x 11 piece of paper (hamburger, football, flower, Spongebob, ice cream cone, unicorn, etc.). Put the page inside a sheet protector or laminate for frequent use. Using the number of counters the student is working with, shake them and spill above the picture. Count how many landed on the image and how many landed off the image. Like mentioned above, the goal is for the student to be able to count the # on and name the # off without physically counting them. 1st and above can record results on a chart or graph. Often just changing to another picture, the student feels like it’s a brand new game! You might also like to place the picture inside a foil tray or latch box to contain the objects that are dropped. The latch box is a great place to store the pictures and counters of math center items.
4 on and 1 off
2 on and 3 off
Graphic organizers: The ten frame is a great organizer as mentioned earlier, but there are two whole/part/part graphic organizers which are especially helpful with number pairs – see below. Students can physically move objects around to see the different ways to decompose their number.
Whole / part / part
Whole / part / part
Check out Jack Hartman’s youtube series on number pairs from 1 to 10. Here’s one on number pairs of 5: “I Can Say My Number Pairs: 5″ He uses two models (ten frames and hand signs) and repetition along with his usual catchy tunes.
Also, please check out the side bar (or bottom if using a cell phone) for links to Varsity Tutors in case you are interested in doing some online tutoring on the side or know students who would benefit from one-on-one help. Please use my name as your reference — Cindy Elkins. Want some PD for yourself? Contact me and I’ll work out a good plan to fit your needs!
Next post: More activities for learning number bonds and assessment resources (both pre- and post-). Take care!!
How often do you see students counting their fingers, drawing tally marks, or other figures to add 9? But what if they could visualize and conceptualize adding 9 is almost like adding ten, but one less? This is where the ten frame comes in handy.
To be most efficient with adding 9, help students to add 10 (or a multiple of 10) to any single digit. Example: 10 + 7, 20 + 4, 50 + 8 . . .
Show a problem such as 9 + 7 as part of your daily Number Talk. Observe and listen to how students are solving.
Introduce this strategy by showing two ten frames – one with 7 and the other with 9. Check for quick recognition (subitizing) of these amounts on each ten frame.
Move one counter from the ten frame with 7 to the ten frame with 9. This will complete it to a full ten frame. Then add 10 + 6 mentally.
The purpose is for students to visualize that 9 is just one away from 10 and can be a more efficient strategy than using fingers or tally marks.
Practice with several more +9 problems.
For 3rd and up try mental math problems such as 25 + 9 or 63 + 9. Then how about problems like 54 + 19 (add 20 and take away one)?
Can students now explain this strategy verbally?
Let’s say you had the problem 14 -9. Show 2 ten frames, one with 10 and one with 4 to show 14.
To subtract 9, focus on the full ten frame and show that removing 9 means almost all of them. Just 1 is left. I have illustrated this by using 2 color counters and turning the 9 over to a different color.
Combine the 1 that is left with the 4 on the second ten frame to get the answer of 5.
Looking at the number 14, I am moving the 1 left over to the one’s place (4 + 1 = 5). Therefore 14 – 9 = 5
Start with 14 (red)
Turn over 9 (yellow)
Move the red together
Use of the ten frame provides a concrete method (moving counters around) and then easily moves to a pictorial method (pictures of dot cards). These experiences allow students to better process the abstract (numbers only) problems they will encounter.
Last week’s focus was on using ten frames to help with students’ number sense and conceptual development of number bonds for amounts 1-10. This post will feature ways to use ten frames to enhance students’ understanding of addition and subtraction. Look for freebies and a video!
There are many addition and subtraction strategies to help students memorize the basic facts such as these below. The ten frame is a very good tool for students of all grade levels to make these strategies more concrete and visual. I will focus on some of these today.
add or take away 1 (or 2)
doubles, near doubles
facts of 10
make a ten
add or sub. 10
add or sub. 9
add or sub. tens and ones
Doubles and near doubles (doubles +1, -1, +2, or -2): If the doubles are memorized, then problems near doubles can be solved strategically.
Show a doubles fact on a single ten frame (for up to 5 + 5). Use a double ten-frame template for 6 + 6 and beyond.
With the same doubles fact showing, show a near doubles problem. This should help students see that the answer is just one or two more or less.
Repeat with other examples.
Help student identify what a doubles + 1 more (or less) problem looks like. They often have a misconception there should be a 1 in the problem. Make sure they can explain where the “1” does come from. Examples: 7 + 8, 10+11, 24+25, 15 +16, etc.
For subtraction, start with the doubles problem showing and turn over the 2-color counters or remove them.
Facts of 10: These are important to grasp for higher level addition / subtraction problems as well as rounding concepts.Continue reading →
The focus in this post will be an introduction to ten frames and ways they can help your students gain number sense. Then stay tuned because ten frames can also be a great tool for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Subitizing: This is the ability to recognize an amount without physically counting. Looking at the picture of red counters: If the top row is full, does the student automatically know there are 5? Doing a Number Talk is a great way to practice subitizing using a ten frame:
Use your own or pre-made dot cards. Flash the card for 1-2 seconds. Observe students. Are any of them trying to point and count? Or do they seem to know right away? Here’s a great video I recommend: KG Number Talk with ten frames
Tell students to put their thumb in front of their chest (quietly) to signal they know how many there are.
Ask a few students to name the amount.
Then ask this very important question, “How did you know?”
For the top picture you might hope a child says, “I knew there were 5 because when the top row is full, there are 5.”
For the bottom picture, you might hope for these types of responses: “I saw 4 (making a square) and 1 more.” or “I saw 3 and 2 more.” or “I pictured the 2 at the bottom moving up to the top row and filling it up, which is 5.”
The idea is to keep building on this.
What if I showed 4 in the top row? Can the student rationalize that it was almost 5? Do they see 2 and 2?
What if I showed 5 in the top row and 1 in the bottom row? Can the student think “5 and 1 more is 6?”
Here are some resources you might like to help with subitizing using ten frames.
Number Bonds:Using ten frames to illustrate number bonds assists students with composing and decomposing numbers. Students then see that a number can be more than a counted amount or a digit on a jersey or phone number. Here is an example of number bonds for 6:
This is part 4 in a continuing series of posts about basic multiplication teaching concepts. Use them for beginning lessons or reteaching for struggling learners. Students could be struggling because they were not given enough exposure to concrete and pictorial models before going to the numbers only practices. The focus in this post will be skip counting to determine multiplication products. I will even focus on skip counting done in early grades (counting by 10’s, 5’s, and 2’s). Read on for 10 teaching strategies regarding skip counting.
I am going to give some of my opinions and misconceptions students have about skip counting.
Many students do not associate skip counting with multiplication, but just an exercise they started learning in KG and 1st (skip counting orally by 10’s, 5’s, and 2’s). This is often because they started with numbers only and did not have the chance to see what this looks like using concrete objects or pictorial representations.
If you observe students skip counting, are they really just counting by 1’s over and over again? Or are they adding the number they are skip counting by repeatedly. You know the scenario. You tell a student to skip count by 3’s and they know 3, 6, 9, but then hold up their 3 fingers and count 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and so on. Or are they truly counting like this: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30?
The main issue I have with skip counting is that if a student makes an error regarding just one of the numbers in the sequence, then the rest of the sequence is incorrect. So this should not be their only strategy. Do you recall a previous story I mentioned about the 5th grader who tried to solve 12 x 3 by skip counting on a timed facts test? He was unsuccessful because he kept losing track and didn’t have another strategy to use.
Successful skip counting reinforces the concept that multiplication is repeated addition – do your students know this? I have witnessed many students who know the first 2-3 numbers in a skip counting sequence, but then don’t know how to get to the next numbers in the sequence.
Students don’t often relate the commutative property to skip counting. Let’s say the problem is 5 x 8. The student tries skip counting by 8’s (because this problem means 5 groups of 8) and may have difficulty. Does the student try to skip count by 5’s eight times instead?
Ten teaching strategies for skip counting:
For young students skip counting, use objects to show how to keep track:
Base 10 rods
Rekenrek (easily slide 5 or 10 beads at a time)
5, 10, 15, 20
Count by 5’s or 10’s
Hand prints (for counting 5’s or 10’s): Which do you think would give students a better understanding: Holding up one hand at a time and counting by 5’s or lining up several children and having them hold up their hands as you continue counting? The second scenario enables students to see the total of fingers as opposed to just 5 at a time.
Use money: nickels and dimes
Associate counting by 2’s with concepts of even and odd
Use manipulatives. Do it often and with a variety of materials. The arrangements should emphasize the other strategies (equal groups, arrays, repeated addition).
Draw and label pictures. The labels for this strategy would show the cumulative totals instead of just the number in each group.
Arrange students in line or groups to practice skip counting. Example if practicing 4’s: Every 4th student turns sideways, every 4th student holds up their hands, every 4th student sits down. every 4th student holds a card with the number representing their value in the counting sequence, etc.
Practice skip counting while bouncing or dribbling a ball. Great for PE class!
Associate skip counting with sports: 2 and 3 pointers in basketball, 6 points for touchdowns in football, etc.
Use a 0-100 chart to see patterns made when skip counting. I love the 0-100 pocket chart and translucent inserts that allow you to model this whole group. Individual 100 charts are readily available in which students can mark or color the spaces. Here are links to the chart and the translucent inserts: 1-100 pocket chart and Translucent pocket chart inserts
Look for other patterns regarding skip counting. Refer to my previous post on this for more details: Skip counting patterns
Skip counting by 2, 3, 4
Skip counting by 6, 8, 9
Relate skip counting to function charts and algebraic patterns using growing patterns.
Practice skip counting using money: by 5’s, 10’s, 25’s, 50’s
What strategies do you like for multiplication? What misconceptions do you see with your students?
Next post will be part 5 of my multiplication posts – and the last one for this school year. I will focus on using these basic concepts with double-digit problems. Stay tuned!!
For my Lawton, OK friends who are implementing Saxon Math but don’t have wall space for all of the math meeting components, here are a few links from TPT for grades KG-3rd for ppt / SMARTBOARD versions. The important aspect of the morning meeting is the interactive part where individual students have a role in placing the numbers, days, coins, patterns, clock hands, graph piece, etc. on the board each day. With that said, there is also value in having some of the math meeting components visible throughout the day such as the calendar, 100 chart, and number of the day. Think of the components you or your students would most likely refer to outside of the math meeting time to keep a permanent physical display.
Here are the links. Read the other purchasers’ comments and look at the previews to get more info. I have not purchased any of these so I can not vouch for the quality or usefulness. For those of you who already have a math meeting ppt that you recommend, please let us know!! Thanks!
In Part 1 I focused on a numerical fluency continuum, which defines the stages a child goes through to achieve number sense. After a child has a firm grasp of one-to-one correspondence, can count on, and understands concepts of more and less, he/she is ready to explore part-part-whole relationships which lead to the operations of addition and subtraction. That will be the focus of this post. Read on for free number bond activities and a free number bond assessment!
One way to explore part-part-whole relationships is through various number bonds experiences. Number Bonds are pairs of numbers that combine to total the target or focus number. When students learn number bonds they are applying the commutative, identity, and zero properties. Do you notice from the chart below that there are 4 number bonds for the number 3; 5 number bonds for the number 4; 6 number bonds for the number 5, etc? And . . . half of the number bonds are actually just the commutative property in action, so there really aren’t as many combinations for each number to learn after all.
KG students should master number bonds to 5.
First graders should master number bonds to 10.
Second graders should master number bonds to 20.Teaching Methods for Number Bonds
Six is 5 and 1. Six is 3 and 3. Or the child may see the bottom as 4 and 2.
Ideally, students should focus on the bonds for one number at a time, until mastery is achieved. In other words, if working on the number bond of 3, they would learn 0 and 3, 3 and 0, 1 and 2, 2 and 1 before trying to learn number bonds of 4. See the end of this post for assessment ideas.
Ten Frame cards: Use counters to show different ways to make the focus number. (See above example of 2 ways to show 6.) Shake and Spill games are also great for this: Using 2-color counters, shake and spill the number of counters matching your focus number. See how many spilled out red and how many spilled out yellow. Record results on a blank ten-frame template. Repeat 10 times.
Number Bond Bracelets: Use beads and chenille stems to form bracelets for each number 2-10. Slide beads apart to see different ways to make the focus number.
Reckenreck: Slide beads on the frame to show different combinations.
Part-Part-Whole Graphic Organizers: Here are two templates I like. Start with objects matching the focus number in the “whole” section. Then move “part” of them to one section and the rest to the other section. Rearrange to find different bonds for the same focus number. Start students with manipulalatives before moving to numbers. Or use numbers as a way for students to record their findings.
7 is the “focus number”
1 and 6 are bonds of 7
Sample recording page
Once students have a good concept of number bonds, these part-part-whole organizers are very helpful when doing addition and subtraction problems (including story problems) using these structures: Result Unknown, Change Unknown, and Start Unknown. Children should use manipulatives at first to “figure out” the story.
Here is an example of a change unknown story: “I have 5 pennies in one pocket and some more in my other pocket. I have 7 pennies all together. How many pennies in my other pocket?” To do this, put 5 counters in one “part” section. Count on from 5 to 7 by placing more counters in the second “part” section (2). Then move them all to the whole section to check that there are 7 all together. Students are determining “What goes with 5 to make 7?” 5 + ___ = 7
Here is an example of a result unknown subtraction story: “Mom put 7 cookies on a plate. I ate 2 of them. How many cookies are still on the plate?” To do this start with the whole amount (7) in the large section. Then move the 2 that were eaten to a “part” section. Count how many are remaining in the “whole section” to find out how many are still on the plate? 7 – 2 = ____.
How are number bonds related to fact families? A fact family is one number bond shown with 2 addition and 2 subtraction statements. Ex: With number bonds 3 and 4 for the number 7, you can make 4 problems: 3 + 4 = 7; 4 + 3 = 7; 7-3 = 4; and 7-4=3.
To be able to add and subtract, students normally pass through several phases as they build readiness for these operations with numbers. As teachers, we know oral counting does not necessarily indicate an understanding of numbers and sets, just like reciting the alphabet doesn’t necessarily mean a child can recognize letters and sounds. Read ahead for freebies in the Part-Part-Whole section.
Numerical Fluency Continuum: There are 7 steps to numerical fluency. If a child gets stuck on any of these steps, it may very likely halt their progress. Hopefully children move through these by the end of 2nd grade, but many students beyond that level have a breakdown which is likely because they missed one of these stages. Can you determine which of these stages your students are in?
One-to-one correspondence: The ability to count objects so each object counted is matched with one number word.
Inclusion of set: Does a child realize that the last number counted names the number of objects in the set? A child counts 5 objects. When you ask how many, can they state “5.” If you mix them up after they just counted them, do they realize there are still 5?
Counting on: If a child counts 5 objects and the teacher then puts 2 more objects for the child to count, do they start all over or continue counting from 5? 5 . . . 6, 7.
Subitizing:Recognize an amount without physically counting (ie on dice, dot cards, fingers).
More Than / Less Than / Equal To: Can a child look at two sets of objects and tell whether the second set is more, less, or equal to the first set. Can a child build a second set with one more, one less, or equal to the first set?
Part / Part / Whole: Compose and decompose sets by looking at the whole and the parts that make up the whole.
7 is the “focus number”
1 and 6 are bonds of 7
Unitizing: The child is able to move from counting by ones to count by sets / groups: fives, tens, etc.
In the next few posts, I will show various ways to conduct daily math meetings which you can incorporate into your daily schedule (as part of your normal morning meeting routine, or at the beginning of your daily math lesson). Daily Math Meetings (10-15 minutes) are vital for quickly reviewing math concepts and number sense in more visual and discussion based format. With primary students, this math meeting might center around the calendar bulletin board (or SMARTboard presentation). With intermediate students, it begins to take on the aspects of a “Number Talk” with a variety of computational strategies being the focus.
PreK – KG Level Components:
Days of the Week
Months of the Year
Graphing (weather, etc.)
Place Value (tens and ones: ten frames, straws, sticks, etc. to keep track of the days of school – working toward the 100th day)
1st – 2nd Grade Level Components:
The above plus . . .
Number Bonds (How can we break apart this number? Such as 10 = 3 + 7 or 6 + 4)
Place Value and skip counting using a 100 chart
Number of the Day (word form, base ten form, place on a numberline, tally marks, on a ten frame, expanded form, etc.)
Ordinal Numbers (using the calendar)
Counting money (add one cent each day and exchange pennies for nickels, nickels for dimes, etc.)
4 is 1 away from 5. 4 is 2 and 2 (or like a square).
This is such an important process in the continuum of counting, adding, and subtracting numbers. It means students can recognize certain quantities without physically counting each one. Continue reading →
A Number Talk is an opportunity to review number sense and operations by making it part of your daily math routine — so that what has previously been taught is not easily forgotten.
In this post I will expand on 2 methods for conducting a Number Talk session for KG-1st grade students (Subitizing and Number Bonds). Refer to a previous post (Sept. 10 – Daily Practice to Build Number Sense), in which I mentioned several other ways to review math concepts on a daily basis such as calendar topics, weather graphs, counting # of days of school, using a 100 chart, Choose 3 Ways, etc. Continue reading →
Number Bonds are pairs of numbers that combine to total the target or focus number. When students learn number bonds they are applying the commutative, identity, and zero properties. PLUS, the information can be applied to both addition and subtraction problems. Number bonds of 10 are very critical to our place value system, and will enhance a student’s success with future addition and subtraction strategies such as use of an open number line.
To build number sense, students need frequent exposure or review of concepts you have previously introduced. There are many ways to build number sense on an on-going, informal basis – especially when you can squeeze in 10-15 minutes daily:
by C. Elkins, OK Math and Reading Lady (updated post on 8-12-17)
The term “subitize” means to recognize quantity without counting. It is a concept recently added to the new OAS (Oklahoma Academic Standards). KG students should be able to “recognize without counting the quantity of a small group of objects in organized and random arrangements up to 10.” For first graders, the quantity is increased to 20 of “structured arrangements.” Subitizing is an important pre-requisite skill to learning addition and subtraction number combinations or number bonds.
Suggested items for the teacher to present this concept: